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Book Code: 1111015879357

Akansha Yadav, Monika Arora, Swayam Siddha

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Gender is the cultural definition of behaviour defined as appropriate to the sexes in a given society at a given time. “Gender is a set of cultural roles. It is a costume, a mask, a straitjacket in which men and women dance their unequal dance.” Unfortunately, the term 'gender' is used both in academic discourse and in the media as interchangeable with sex. For laymen, sex and gender are synonymous, in fact, its widespread use is probably due to it sounding a bit more 'refined' than the plain word 'sex' with its 'nasty' connotations. Such use is unfortunate, because it hides and mystifies the difference between the biologically given sex and culturally created gender.

Let us make our analysis a little more clearly. Whenever in technical terms we talk about sex, we mean biological composition and whenever we talk about gender we attach a cultural meaning. When only one sex had influence over the process, as is typically the case in male-dominated pastoral or horticultural societies, tight hubs of related individuals emerged. However, the average number of related individuals is predicted to be much lower when men and women have an equal influence closely matching what was seen in the populations that were studied. Thus, there is need to describe women status in tribals' communities as well as in rural urban India.

The authors argue that sexual equality may have proved an evolutionary advantage for early human societies, as it would have fostered wider-ranging social networks and closer cooperation between unrelated individuals. “It gives a far more expansive social network with a wider choice of mates, so inbreeding would be less of an issue, and persons come into contact with more people and they can share innovations, which is something that humans do par excellence.”
The findings appear to be supported by qualitative observations from the tribals groups in the study. In the tribal's population, women are involved in household work with outside professional works by traditional and trend modern occupation while there is still a division of labour. Overall, sociologically, the status of tribals' women is better than urban and rural women of India.


Dr. Swapan Kumar Kolay born in 1966 at Midnapur, West Bengal. He obtained M.Sc. with first class in Physical/ Biological Anthropology (1992) and Ph.D. (1999) from the University of Sagar, M.P. He has done Post Graduate Diploma in Rural Development from Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi. Dr. Kolay got both Doctoral & Post- Doctoral Research Fellowship from Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Govt. of India, New Delhi. His worked with Cultural Research Institute, Kolkata; A. N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies, Patna; Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi and Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal. He has rich research experience in conducting Tribal development, Tribal health and Natural resource management based research on 25 different tribes in 18 states in India. He has attended and organized many workshops, training programme and seminars at National and International level. He is a life member of Indian Science Congress Association, Kolkata; Indian Anthropological Society, Kolkata; Indian Anthropological Association, Delhi, Indian National Confederation and the Academy of Anthropologists, Kolkata; Institute of Social Research & Applied Anthropology, Kolkata; Purna Chandra Memorial Institute of Social Research & Development, Kolkata. Dr. Kolay published more than 100 research based articles in different National, International journals and 11 books to his credit. At present he is Associate Professor & Head, School of Anthropology and Tribal Studies; Additional Deputy Registrar and Ex-Dean of Student Welfare, Bastar University, Chhattisgarh. He can be reached on

Mrs. Sushila D. Mahant is Post-graduate M.Sc. in Anthropology and secure first class first (Gold Medel). She is also specialized in plant ecology and Environment Science and done Post Graduate Diploma in Rural Development from C.V. Raman University, Bilaspur (C.G.). Mrs. Sushila has participated in National and International level seminars/workshops and published more than 7 research based articles in different National and International journals. At present she is doing Ph.D. She can be reached on


Preface . 11

Acknowledgements . 13

List of Tables . 15

List of Abbreviations . 19

1. Introduction. 23
1.1 Gender Inequality; a Paradox, 1.2 Concept of Gender Inequality, 1.2.1 Definitions of Gender and Sex, 1.3 Gender Inequality in India, 1.3.1 Global Indices, 1.3.2 Gender Inequality Statistics, 1.3.3 Types of Gender Inequality in India, 1.3.4 Reasons of Gender Disparity. Poverty, Illiteracy, Lack of Employment Facilities, Social Customs, Beliefs and Practices, Social Behaviour, Lack of Awareness of Women, 1.4 Cultural Factors, 1.4.1 Patrilocality, 1.4.2 Son Preferable Mindset, 1.4.3 Girls Marriage Problem, 1.4.4 Patrilineality, 1.4.5 Religious Rituals, 1.5 Facts and Figures of Gender Inequality by Different Aspects of Discrimination in India, 1.5.1 Fundamental Indicator of Gender Inequality, 1.5.2 Status in the Sex Ratio at Birth, 1.5.3 Relation between Sex Ratios and Wealth Status, 1.6 Leading Factors of Gender Disparity, 1.6.1 Role of Modern Technology, 1.6.2 Sex Ratios at Birth by Birth Order, Sex Ratios at Birth by Rtate, 1.6.3 Sex Differentials and Mortality, 1.7 Marriage and Spousal Age Differentials, 1.7.1 Inequality in Age at Marriage, 1.8 Status of Women: outside the Home, 1.9 Women Responses about Money, 1.9.1 Access to a Bank or Savings Account that Women Themselves Use, 1.9.2 Percentage of Women who have a Bank or Savings Account they use by State, 1.10 Gender Relations: Norms and Attitudes, 1.10.1 Men’s Attitudes Regarding Gender Roles in Household Decision making, 1.10.2 Acceptance of Norms about Men’s ‘Right’ to Beat Their Wives, Agreement by Reason, Agreement by Education, 1.11 Gender Differentials in Children’s Full Immunization, 1.12 Gender Disparity and Religions, 1.12.1 Gender Inequality in Muslim World: Prevalent Reasons, Historical Factors, Colonialism, Economic Factors, 1.12.2 Feminism and Christianity: Contradiction in Society, 1.13 Transgender: A Socio-cultural Issues in Society, 1.13.1 Socio- economic Status of Transgender, 1.13.2 Rituality and Transgender, Transgender in Hindu, Hijras in Islam, 1.13.3 Transgender Rights, 1.13.4 Discrimination of Transgender in Society, Avoidance At work, Negligence In school and College, Inequality in Employment, Inequality in Health, 1.14 Gender Issue amongst Tribals, 1.14.1 Command over Property, 1.14.2 Gender Inequality and Stratification,1.14.3 Rape and the Tribal Response: The Case of Literature

2. Important Constitutional and Legal Provisions for Gender Sensitisation in India. 97
2.1 An Overview: Constitutional Need for Women, 2.2 Persistence of Gender Norms when Eeconomic Conditions Change, 2.3 Legal and Constitutional Safeguards against Gender Inequality, 2.4 Preamble, 2.5 National Policy for the Empowerment of Women (2001), 2.6 Goal and Objectives, 2.7 Policy Prescriptions; Judicial Legal Systems, 2.8 Decision Making, 2.9 Mainstreaming a Gender Perspective in the Development Process, 2.10 Economic Empowerment of women; Poverty Eradication, 2.10.1 Micro Credit, 2.10.2 Women and Economy, 2.10.3 Globalization, 2.10.4 Women and Agriculture, 2.10.5 Women and Industry, 2.10.6 Support Services, 2.11 Social Empowerment of Women, 2.11.1 Education, 2.11.2 Health, 2.11.3 Nutrition, 2.11.4 Drinking Water and Sanitation, 2.11.5 Housing and Shelter, 2.11.6 Environment, 2.11.7 Science and Technology, 2.11.8 Women in Difficult Circumstances, 2.12 Violence against Women, 2.13 Rights of the Girl Child, 2.14 Mass Media, 2.15 Operational Strategies, 2.15.1 Action Plans, 2.15.2 Institutional Mechanisms, 2.15.3 Resource Management, 2.16 Legislation, 2.17 Gender Sensitization, 2.18 Panchayat Raj Institutions, 2.19 Partnership with the Voluntary Sector Organizations, 2.20 International Cooperation, 2.21 Constitutional Provisions, 2.21.1 Constitutional Privileges, 2.21.2 Legal Provisions, 2.21.3 The Crimes identified under the Special aws (SLL), 2.21.4 Special Initiatives for Women, National Commission for Women, Reservation for Women in Local Self Government, The National Plan of Action for the Girl Child (1991-2000), National Policy for the Empowerment of Women, 2001, 2.22 The Violence against Women Act’s (VAWA’s) Tribal Provisions, 2.22.1 VAWA’s Jurisdiction; Definitions, Types of Crimes, Types of Defendants, Types of Victims, Place of Criminal Act that Serves as the Basis for Special Criminal Jurisdiction, 2.22.2 VAWA’s Procedural Requirements, Right to a Jury Selected from a Fair Cross Section of the Community, Right to Counsel for Indigent Defendants, Law Trained Judges, Inform of Right to File Writ of Habeas Corpus in Federal Court, Other Provisions of the Indian Civil Rights Act, Catch All Procedural Safeguard Provision, 2.22.3 Additional Issues, Time Limits, Geographic Limits, Non-Jurisdictional Provisions in VAWA, Tribes in Public Law 280 States, 2.23 Women’s Justice, 2.23.1 Issues of Concern, 2.23.2 Major Impacts, 2.24 Policy and Performance in Chhattisgarh, 2.24.1 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), 2.24.2 Kishori Shakti Yojana, 2.24.3 Swayam Siddha Scheme, 2.24.4 Mini Mata Poshan Ahar Yojna, 2.24.5 Prime Minister Gramodaya Yojna, 2.24.6 Iron Fortified Salt Supplementation, 2.24.7 Ayushmati Scheme, 2.24.8 Balika Samridhi Yojna, 2.24.9 Dattak Putri Education Scheme, 2.24.10 Mahila Jagriti Shivir, 2.24.11 Grants to Voluntary Organizations.

3. Discrimination in Wage and Economic Status of Women . 133
3.1 The Challenge, 3.2 Gender Inequality in Participation in Paid Work, 3.3 Gender Differences in Wages, 3.4 Valuing Household Production, 3.4.1 The Costs Calculation of Gender Inequality: 1900 to 2010, 3.4.2 The Costs Calculation: 2010 to 2050, 3.4.3 Costs Calculation of Gender Inequality: 1900 to 2050, 3.5 Women’s Work Worldwide Inequality, 3.6 Wage Differential between Men and Women in India, 3.6.1 Women’s and Men’s Employment Status in India, 3.6.2 Correlation between Gender, Employment and Marital Status, 3.6.3 Correlationbetween Gender, Employment and Residence, 3.6.4 Correlation between Gender, Employment and Wealth, 3.6.5 Inequality in Women’s Occupational Distribution, 3.6.6 Discrimination Trends in Employment for Ever Married Women, 3.7 Disparity in Female Household Headship: Levels and Trends, 3.7.1 Comparative Work Participation, 3.7.2 Women in Agriculture, 3.7.3 Correlation between Women and forests, 3.7.4 Women in Non-agricultural Activities, Entrepreneurship and Women, 3.7.5 Development Programmes and Tribals Women, 3.7.6 Exploitation of Women, 3.7.7 Status of Tribal Woman.

4. Gender Inequality in Education. 165
4.1 Gender Differences in Educational Attainment and Training, 4.2 Gender Differences in Education, 4.3 Disparity in School Attendance, 4.3.1 Correlation between School Attendance and Education of Household Head, 4.3.2 Correlation between School Attendance and Household Wealth, 4.3.3 School Attendance by State, 4.3.4 Age and School Attendance Rate, 4.3.5 Educational Attainment among Adults: Levels and Trends, 4.4 Relation between Age, Educational and Household Heads, 4.5 Wealth Profile of Households by Sex, 4.5.1 Female Household Headship by State, 4.5.2 Trends in the Age and Educational Profile of Female Household Heads, 4.5.3 Educational Status of Tribal Women.

5. Gender Disparity in Health Status . 191
5.1 Access to Health Care, 5.2 Cultural Context and Women’s Health, 5.3 Health Status of Tribal Women, 5.3.1 Anemia, 5.3.2 Higher Fertility with Inclining Female Infant Mortality.

6. Methodology . 201
6.1 Tools of Data Collection, 6.1.1 Secondary Data Collection, 6.1.2 Primary Data Collection, Use of Standardised Questions by Schedule/ Questionnaire, 6.2 Data Analysis.

7. Study Area . 207
7.1 Chhattisgarh at a Glance, 7.1.1 Physiographic Profile, 7.1.2 Minerals, 7.1.3 Agriculture, 7.1.4 Flora and Fauna, Flora, Fauna, 7.1.5 Arts and Culture of Chhattisgarh, 7.1.6 Dance & Music of Chhattisgarh, 7.1.7 Festivals and Fairs of Chhattisgarh, 7.2 Bastar, 7.2.1 Demographics, 7.2.2 Languages, 7.2.3 Economy, 7.2.4 Agriculturists, 7.2.5 Labourers, 7.2.6 Agriculturists and Forest Gatherers, 7.2.7 Forest Gatherers and Labourers, 7.2.8 Manufacturers, 7.2.9 Service Persons, 7.2.10 Organised Sector, 7.2.11 Major Industries, Nagarnar Steel Plant, Tata Steel Plant, Lambodhar Cement Products, 7.2.12 Tribals of Bastar, 7.2.13 Arts and Crafts, 7.2.14 Educational Status, 7.2.15 Study Villages: An Overview, Madpal Village, Nyanar Village, Dhurguda Village, 7.2.16 Tribals of Bastar, Bison Horn Maria, Gond, Muriya, Abujhmaria, Halba, Bhatra, Dorla, Dhurwa.

8. Result and Discussion . 243
8.1 Result, 8.1.1 Demography and Socio- economic Position of Women, Number of Household Studied, Population Composition, Age Group, Marital Status, Literacy Rate and Level of Education, Occupation, Income, Business Permitted by Female Folk, Keep the Money by Business, Deviation of Wage EarnMoney, Firstly Food Serve, Main Responsibility, Main Role for Earning Money, 8.1.2 Position of Women on Religious, Fair and Festivals, Propitiate to Worship for God and Goddesses, Both Male and Female Participation all Fair and Festivals, 8.1.3. Allowed Female at Worship Place, 8.1. 4. Allowed Female at Traditional Panchyat, 8.1. 4. 1 Allowed Female at Modern Panchyat, 8.1. 4. 2 Female Raised their Voice at Modern Panchayat Meeting, 8.1. 4. 3 Youth and Girls Participated at Gram Panchayat Samiti Work, 8.1. 4. 4 Panch Elected, 8.1. 4. 5 Right to Decision for Panch Elected, 8.1. 4. 6 Conversation between Male and Female during Panchayat Meeting, 8.1.5 Position of Women in Society, Equal Right defined by Society, Level of Women by Society, Both Male and Female Dancing and Singing Rights by Society, Female are treated as Daini by Society, Male Outsider and Female insider Household Work, 8.2 Poor Health Status of Women as Compare to Men, 8.3 A Comparison between Tribals and Urban General Communities, 8.3.1 Discrimination against Women, 8.3.2 Discrimination against Women Before Birth / As an Infant, 8.3.3 Discrimination against Women as Child Nutrition and Health, 8.4 Education, 8.5 Child Marriages, 8.5.1 Reasons of Child Marriage, Financial Benefit, Historical Origins, Religious Origin, Discrimination against Women, Discrimination against Women after Marriage, Discrimination against Women as a Widow, Discrimination against Women for Inheritance. 8.6 Psychological hreatening Towards Women, 8.7 Other Analysis about Women of Chhattisgarh.

9. Recommendation and Conclusion . 277
9.1 Policy Recommendation, 9.1.1 Periods of Conflict and Post Conflict Reconstruction, Reconstruction of Social Infrastructure, Potentially Transformative Moment, 9.1.2 Need Gender Justice, Incorporation of Gender Justice into Accountability Mechanisms, 9.1.3 Addressing Sexual Violation as a War Crime, Acknowledging and Addressing Womens Experiences of Sexual Violence, Mechanisms for Redress in the Domestic Sphere, 9.1.4 Policy Implications, Precedent Setting Cases, International Law; Driving Force for the Reform of National Law, International Institutions; Support the Reconstruction of Local Police and Courts, 9.1.5 Gender Balance, 9.1.6 Women’s Stake; Minimized’ Processes, 9.1.7 Beyond Inclusion, 9.1.8 Feminists, 9.1.9 International Law, 9.1.10 Truth Commissions, 9.1.11 The Focus; The Power to Highlight the Structural Factors, 9.1.12 Further General Policy Recommendations, 9.1.13 General, Livelihoods, Labour and Employment, Education, Health, Legal and Criminal Justice, Social Problems, Social Security, Media, Rural/Urban Development, 9.2 Conclusion.

Bibliography . 305

Index. 323

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