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Book Code: 1111015809930

Archana Verma

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Database Management Systems is a core subject which explains how data is managed for applications which are used in our day to day life such as Banking Systems, Railway Reservation Systems etc

The book DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS has been written for B.Tech 3rd year students of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University. The book has been written according to the syllabus of the subject Database Management Systems and concepts have been explained well through the help of examples and diagrams.

The book contains Introduction, Entity-Relationship Model, Relational Algebra, SQL, Functional Dependencies and Normalization, Distributed Databases, Transaction Processing and Concurrency Control.



Archana Verma is an Associate Professor in the Department of CSE / IT / MCA in IEC Group of Institutions, Greater Noida, affiliated to Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow.

She has taught B.Tech, M.Tech and MCA students for last 16 years. She worked with TCS for 6 years prior to that. She obtained Master of Information Science Degree in June 1995 from University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australia. MCA from Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak in June 2004 and M.Tech ( Computer Science Engineering) from Amity University, Noida in June 2013.

She has written two books, “Unix and Shell Programming” and “Bioinformatics”.
She is a dedicated teacher and loves her profession. She likes to share her knowledge with students through writing books.


Acknowledgement . 9

Synopsis . 11

1. Introduction . 13
• An Overview of Database Management System • Users in a Database System • Database Systems vs File systems • Categories of Data Models • The 3 Schema Architecture • Data Independence • Data Base Languages and Interfaces • DataBase Structure.

2. Entity Relationship Model . 29
• Definitions • Entity Types, Entity Sets and Value Sets • Keys • Relationships, Relationship Types, Relationship Instance, Relationship Sets, Relationship Degree • Constraints on Relationship Types • The ER Diagram • Reducing the ER Diagram into Tables • Weak Entity Type • Ternary Relationships
• Subclasses and Superclasses • Aggregation.

3. Relational Model and Relational Algebra . 63
• Introduction • Domains, Attributes, Tuples and Relations • Relational Constraints and Relational database Schemas • Relational Algebra Operations
• Operations Particularly Designed for the Relational Database • The Division Operation • Aggregate Functions • The Tuple Relational Calculus • The Domain Relational Calculus.

4. Structured Query Language (SQL) . 91
• Structured Query Language Definition • Basic Structure of SQL Queries • Complex and Nested Queries • Set Operations • Aggregate Functions • NULL Values • Modification of the Database • Join Expressions • Views • Accessing SQL from a Programming Language • Functions and Procedures.

5. Functional Dependencies and Normalization . 123
• Introduction • Updation Anomalies • Functional Dependencies • NORMAL FORMS • Multivalued Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form • Join Dependency and Fifth Normal Form • Lossless Join Decomposition • Dependency Preservation Property of a Decomposition • Inclusion Dependencies.

6. Transaction Processing . 165
• Introduction • Transaction Concept • Transaction States • Problems that Occur during Concurrency • Schedules and Recoverability • Schedules and Serializability • Conflict Serializability • Testing for Conflict Serializability • View Serializability • Transaction Support in SQL • Recovery Techniques • Caching • Database Backup.

7. Distributed Databases . 197
• Distributed Data Storage • Concurrency Control • Directory System.

8. Concurrency Control . 205
• Concurrency Control • Guaranteeing Serializability with the help of Locks • The Two-Phase Locking Protocol • Strict Two-Phase Locking Protocol
• Rigorous Two-Phase Locking Protocol • Deadlock Free Protocols • Graph Based Protocol • Timestamp Based Protocol • Validation Based Protocol
• Granularity of Data Items • Multiversion Schemes.

Appendix — Solutions to Important Questions . 229
• ER diagrams • Relational Algebra • SQL queries • Join Decompositions, Closure , Keys • Conflict serializabity.

Index . 261