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Book Code: 1111015811760

Basharat Mushtaq, Humaira Qadri

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Environmental science is an interdisciplinary field. Because environmental disharmonies occur as a result of the interaction between humans and the natural world, we must include both when seeking solutions to environmental problems.  Environmental Studies is a compulsory paper for undergraduate students in almost all disciplines in India. The purpose of teaching this course is to sensitize students towards environmental issues. The book introduces students to the fundamental principles of environmental science, its introduction, evolution and history and how environment is made from various components ecology and allied topics including ecosystems, biodiversity, population, policy, law, pollution control, economics, natural resource management and sustainable development. This book provides detailed discussion on fundamental concepts and issues – including global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents etc. – related to the environment. Focusing on the immediate need for public awareness, the book discusses various natural resources such as water, land, forests, food and mineral, and the problems associated with them. Using examples, it introduces and explains different types of ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles and laws of thermodynamics. This book is a comprehensive account of the fundamentals of environmental science and shall be a useful resource for the students.


Dr. Basharat Mushtaq graduated from Govt. Sri Pratap College Srinagar, did his masters in Environmental Science from University of Kashmir Srinagar. With the specialization in Aquatic Ecology he obtained his doctorate in Environmental Science from Barkatullah University Bhopal Madhya Pradesh. Dr. Basharat worked as a research associate in various Environmental Impact Assessment/Environmental Management projects sponsored by various national and International agencies like NHPC, WAPCOS, NRSC-ISRO, SDA, PDA, GDA and YDA. He further worked as Senior Research Fellow in a major research project on Lake Ecology funded by LAWDA, J & K Govt. Srinagar. He has published many research papers and book chapters in various national and international journals of scientific repute. Dr. Basharat has worked as a faculty in the Cluster University Srinagar besides being a Guest Faculty at Central University of Kashmir. Presently he is working as a Lecturer Environmental Science at Govt. Sri Pratap College Campus, Cluster University Srinagar.

Dr. Humaira Qadri is a senior Assistant Professor currently involved in teaching in he Post-Graduation Department of Environmental Science in the Govt. Sri Pratap College Campus of Cluster University Srinagar. She is also heading the department of Environment and Water management in the same campus. She is a Gold Medalist at her Maters level. She has a number of national and international books to her credit on various topics of Environmental Science. Her research interests are diverse and published in journals of repute. She has organized a number of conferences, seminars and workshops. She is a life member of various national and international organizations.


Foreword . 7

Preface . 9

1. Environment . 11
• Types of environment • Structure of Environment • Components of environment • Evolution of Environmental concerns over time • Environmental Concerns: A bit of history • Environmental science • Evolution of the Subject: Growing Environmental Concern Worldwide • Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Science • Principal and scope of environmental science • Need for public awareness • Institutions in environment • People in environment • Environmental calendar of activities.

2. Natural Resource . 47
• Natural Resource • Classification of natural resources • Problems Associated with Natural Resources • Forest Resources, types, uses and over exploitataion • Deforestation, causes and consequences • Water Resources, classification and types of water resources • Drought and Floods • Dams: benefits and problems • Conflicts Over Water • Mineral resources, uses and exploitation environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources • World Food Problem
• Changes caused by Modern Agricultural and overgrazing • Fertilizers related problems • Energy resources, Growing energy needs, Renewable and nonrenewable energy sources.

3. Ecology and Ecosystem . 85
• An Introduction • Definitions and Classification of Various Aspects of Ecology • Ecosystem • Historical background of ecosystem • Kinds of ecosystem
• Structure and function of Ecosystem • Energy flow/energy budget • Food chain and food web • Ecological Pyramids • Ecological Succession.

4. Biodiversity . 127
• Biodiversity, Levels, measurement and pricipal • History of Biodiversity • Status of Biodiversity • India as a Mega Biodiversity Nation • The value of Biodiversity • Threats to biodiversity • Endangered and endemic species of India • Conservation of biodiversity.

5. From unsustainable to Sustainable Development . 151
• Introduction • Causes of unsustainable development • Urban Problems Related to Energy • Water conservation • Rain Water Harvesting • Watershed management • Energy and Environment • Solar Energy Technology, Bioenergy, Hydroelectricity and Wind Energy • Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People
• Environmental ethics • Climate change causes and effects • Acid rain Formation, Effects and Control measures • Ozone layer depletion • Wasteland reclamation • Solid waste management.

6. Environmental education . 185
• Environmental education: goals, objectives, guiding principles and relevance to human welfare • Environmental organizations, agencies and programmes
• Environmental Movements- Chipko Movement, Narmada Dam • Environmentalism: history of environmentalism • Role of individual in environmental education.

7. Environmental Acts and Legislation . 211
• The Water (Prevention And Control of Pollution) Act • The Jammu and Kashmir Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1978 • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act • Forest conservation Act • Environment (Protection) Act 1986 • International conventions: Stockholm, Montreal and Kyoto protocol
• Montreal Protocol.

8. Human population . 229
• Human population back ground and introduction • Population Characteristics • Population Growth forms and history • Global human population growth
• Population growth in India • Population Growth Curve • Causes and biological reasons of population growth • Factors Controlling Population Growth
• Population Explosion-Family Welfare Programme • Impact of population pressure on india’s environment— food and natural resources • Measures to Control over Population • Environment and Human Health • Diseases: Diphtheria, Whooping Cough or Pertusis, Cholera, Malaria, Tetanus • Human Rights
• Value education.

Index . 259

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