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Ismail Thamarasseri, Pushpita Rajawat, Ulfat Ali Lone

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Untitled Document

ABOUT THE BOOK

This textbook is aimed at pre-service and in-service teachers. Its purpose is to help educators, in situations where curriculum reform is a major pillar of an overall reform process and/or a particular focus of support. It is intended to provide a overview of key issues, steps in a reform process and the frequent problems encountered in a curriculum reform programme. This book is a comprehensive treatment of curriculum development. The need of philosophy of education felt very seriously in the area of curriculum planning. This textbook enables an understanding and appreciation of the complex nature of interactions between and among the various forces and processes in the school and the social environment at large, which shape curriculum. The present textbook, Curriculum and School, is one of the core course of the new two-year B.Ed. Programme. In considering the needs and requirements of the student teachers, the present book has been prepared. It is hope that this book will cater to the academic needs of the students who are undergoing B.Ed. / M.Ed. programmes. The focus of this book on building understanding of different perspectives of Curriculum and School and helping student teachers to learn to apply them in different learning situations.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. Ismail Thamarasseri was born and grew up in Malappuram District, Kerala, India. He holds B.A., B.Ed., M.A. Sociology, M.A. English, M.Ed. and Ph.D. Education degrees. He has qualified UGC-NET (Education, Sociology, Adult Education) and Central Teacher Eligibility Test. He started his teaching career at Govt. Higher Secondary School, Cheriyamundam, Tirur, Kerala and later worked in Farook group of educational institutions Kottakkal, Kerala. Presently he is working as an Assistant Professor at Department of Education in Central University of Kashmir, India. He is the author of several books and published extensively in reputed journals. He has presented various papers on different topics of education at National and International seminars. He is associated with many academic bodies and NGOs in different capacities. The author can be mailed at ismailktkl@gmail.com

Dr. Pushpita Rajawat has been working as an Assistant Professor in Teacher Education at Central University of Kashmir, India. She holds M.Sc. Chemistry, M.Ed., M. Phil Education, PhD Education and UGC-NET Education. She has 13 years of teaching experience. She has been regularly contributing research papers/articles/book chapters in various publications. She has presented more than 15 research papers & articles in national & international level seminars. She is associated with many academic bodies in different capacities. She has developed self - learning materials for universities. She has published the book on “Role Conflict among Women Teachers in relation to Commitment, Competency & Performance”. She published a psychological tool at the National Psychological Corporation, Agra. The author can be mailed at pushpita01@gmail.com

Ms. Ulfat Ali Lone was born in Dalgate city of Srinagar, J&K, India. She holds B.A., B. Ed. and M.A. Education. She has qualified JK-SET (Education). Presently she is pursuing her Integrated M. Phil / Ph. D. at School of Education, Central University of Kashmir. She is a socio-cultural activist and associated with various NGO's. She is the First Generation learner and wanted to dedicate this credit to her sister. The author can be mailed at replyulfat@hotmail.com

CONTENTS

Preface . 9

1. Perspectives on Curriculum. 13
• Meaning of Curriculum • Historical conception • Nature of Curriculum • Teaching as Process of Curriculum • Teaching and Learning in the Curriculum • Need of Curriculum in Schools • The Importance and Role of Curriculum • In Elementary Schools • In High Schools • At College & Higher Education • Components of curriculum • Facets of Curriculum • Principles Of Curriculum • The Tyler Rationale • Critical Pedagogy and Neo-Marxism • Social Constructivists • Core Curriculum • Basis of the pattern of Core Curriculum • What are the characteristics of core curriculum? • What are the benefits of the Core Curriculum?
• Elements of Core Curriculum • Hidden Curriculum • Features of Hidden Curriculum • Components of the Hidden Curriculum • Processes Attributable to the Hidden Curriculum (Lempp & Seale, 2004) • Uncovering the Hidden Curriculum Requires • How Hidden Curriculum Can Affect Learning: Some Examples
• Classroom Implications of Hidden Curriculum • Spiral Curriculum / Spaced Or Distributed Approach • Roles of Spiral Approach in Teaching • Integrated Curriculum • Benefits of Integrated Curriculum • Examples of Integrated Curriculum • Defining Integrated Curriculum • Multidisciplinary Integration
• Interdisciplinary Integration • Trans-disciplinary Integration • Project-Based Learning • How the Three Approaches Connect with Each Other
• Disadvantages of Integrated Curriculum • Curriculum Framework-need And Importance; Ramification Of Curriculum Framework Into Curriculum, Syllabus And Textbooks • Common Elements of a Curriculum Framework • Significance of Curriculum in School Education • Differentiating between curriculum and syllabus • Notion of Textbook • Definition of Textbooks • Advantages of textbooks in Teaching & Learning • Conclusion • Model Questions • Multiple Choice Questions • Answer Key • Reference.

2. Concept of Curriculum. 69
• Curriculum Framework • Common Elements of a Curriculum Framework • Significance of curriculum in school education • Differentiating between Curriculum and Syllabus • Notion of textbook • Definition of Textbooks • Importance of textbooks in teaching learning • Core Curriculum • Basis of the Pattern of Core Curriculum • What are the Characteristics of Core Curriculum? • What are the benefits of the Core Curriculum? • Elements of Core Curriculum
• Curriculum Planning In Indian Context • The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 • The Kothari Commission 1964-66 • The National Policy on Education 1986 • Curriculum in The Ramamurti Report 1990 • Meaning And Concerns Of ‘Hidden’ Curriculum • Features of Hidden Curriculum
• Components of the Hidden Curriculum • Processes Attributable to the Hidden Curriculum (Lempp and Seale, 2004) • Uncovering the Hidden Curriculum Requires • How Hidden Curriculum Can Affect Learning: Some Examples • References.

3. Types of Curriculum. 85
• Meaning & Definition Of Curriculum • Some Other Definitions • Classification Of Curriculum • Types of Curriculum • Subject Centred Curriculum
• Characteristics of Subject Curriculum • Requirements for the Operation of Subject centred Curriculum • Criticism on Subject Centred Curriculum • Defences of Subject Centred Curriculum • Learner-centred Curriculum • Characteristics • Applications of learner Centred Curriculum • Curriculum plans emphasizing the option concept • Community Centred Curriculum • Characteristics of the Community-Centred Curriculum • Teacher’s role in the community-centred curriculum • Student’s role in the community-centred curriculum • Learning environment of the community-centred curriculum • Assessments in the community-centred curriculum • Social Re-constructionist Curriculum • Purpose of the social Re-constructionist curriculum • Role of the Teacher • Basis for selecting learning opportunities • Organisation • Instructional sequence typically follows these stages • Evaluation • Model Questions • References.

4. Philosophical Basis of Curriculum . 105
• Introduction • Traditionalists • History • Philosophical Basis • Points of Contention • Applications • Conceptual-empiricists • History • Philosophical Basis
• Points of contention • Applications • Reconceptualists • History • Philosophical basis • Applications • Curriculum Development • Curriculum Considerations
• Instructional Considerations • Evaluation • References.

5. Curriculum Determinants and Considerations . 123
• Introduction • Social-political-cultural-geographical-economic Diversity As A Determinant Of Curriculum Making • Economic Factors • Socio-political Aspirations, Including Ideologies And Educational Vision • Economic Necessities As A Determinants Of Curriculum Making • Technological Possibilities As A Determinants Of Curriculum Making • Curriculum Models and Technological Resources • Cultural Orientations As A Determinant Of Curriculum Making
• Aspects of culture in Curriculum Development • Cultural determinants of the content of curriculum • The terms curriculum and curriculum development
• National Priorities As A Determinant Of Curriculum Making • System Of Governance And Power Relations As A Determinant Of Curriculum Making
• International Contexts As A Determinants Of Curriculum Making • Putting the Multi-Perspective Curriculum into practice • Considerations In Curriculum Development At The School Level • Curriculum Content for Schools for Social Development • Design considerations in a learner centred curriculum
• Institutional considerations in Curriculum Design • Forms Of Knowledge And Its Characterisation In Different School Subjects • Curriculum perspectives on subject matter • Relevance And Specificity Of Educational Objectives For Concerned Level • General Objective and Specific Objective • Examples
• Examples • Socio cultural Context Of Students – Multicultural, Multilingual Aspects • What Makes a School Multicultural? • Multi-Lingual aspects
• Languages and the Indian Constitution • Secondary Education Commission (1952-03) on Study of Languages • The Position of Linguistic Minorities
• Learner Characteristics • Teachers’ Experiences And Concerns • Critical Issues: Environmental Concerns, Gender Differences, Inclusiveness, Value Concerns And Issues, Social Sensitivity • Gender Differences • Inclusiveness • Value Concerns And Social Sensitivity • Make social
sensitivity part of curriculum • Conclusion • Model Questions • References.

6. Curriculum Development at School Level . 205
Introduction • Understanding Different Approaches To Curriculum Development • Subject-centred Approaches To Curriculum Development • Characteristics of subject-centred approaches to curriculum development • Environmentalist Approaches (Incorporating Local Concerns) To Curriculum Development • Aims and Objectives of environmental education • Behaviourist Approaches To Curriculum Development • Competency-based Approaches To Curriculum Development • Benefits to innovating competency based learning within existing workflows • ‘Minimum Levels Of Learning’ (Mll) • Specification of MLL: A Curriculum Issue • Learner-centred Approaches To Curriculum Development • Traditional Curriculum Development versus Student-Centred Curriculum
• Content Selection and Priority Setting • Constructivist Approaches To Curriculum Development • Constructivist Processes and Education • Constructivist Principles of learning • Constructivist curriculum • Process Of Curriculum Making • Phases and Steps in Curriculum Development • Essential Curriculum Development Steps Needing Emphasis • Phase I: Planning • Phase II: Content and Methods • Phase III: Implementation • Phase IV: Evaluation and Reporting • Formulating Aims And Objectives (Based On Overall Curricular Aims And Syllabus) • Major Characteristics of Behavioural Objectives • Criteria For Selecting Knowledge And Representing Knowledge In The Form Of Thematic Questions In Different Subjects • Organising Fundamental Concepts And Themes Vertically Across Levels And Integrating Themes Within (And Across) Different Subjects • Fundamental Concepts and Themes • Some Common Curriculum Frameworks • Outcome- Based Curriculum • What is Outcomes-Based Education (OBE)? • Selection And Organisation Of Learning Situations
• Characteristics of a Learning Situation in a Pre-School • Conclusion • Model Questions • References.

7. Curriculum Implementation and Renewal . 263
• Introduction • Operationalising Curriculum Into Learning Situations • Teachers’ Role In Generating Dynamic Curricular Experiences • Teachers’ Role In Flexible Interpretation Of Curricular Aims • Teachers’ Role In Contextualisation Of Learning • Implications of contextualisation for the Curriculum • Teachers’ Role In Generating Varied Learning Experiences • Selection And Development Of Learning Resources • Questions to consider when choosing, developing or assessing learning materials • Procedures for Selection of Learning Resources • Procedures for Selection of Learning Resources • References.

Index. 291



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